Summary of Findings:

After 1 session, 95% of those who received ‘advanced therapy’ had quit smoking. The remaining 5% received a second session of treatment, leading to a further 1.3% of the group quitting smoking. In total, therefore, at 6 months, 97% of those who received ‘advanced therapy’ had quit smoking. 

Excerpts from “Smoking Cessation and Hypnosis”

A comparative review of the effectiveness of hypnosis, an advanced method of hypnosis, and other interventions used for the cessation of smoking.

by Michael O’ Driscoll B.Sc., M.Sc. (Oxon)

This paper presents some of the findings from a study looking at all methods of smoking cessation, including standard hypnotherapy techniques and compares those to a specially developed advanced method of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

High quit rates for hypnosis compared to other methods

A larger meta-analysis of research into hypnosis to aid smoking cessation (Chockalingam and Schmidt 1992) (48 studies, 6,020 subjects) found that the average quit rate for those using hypnosis was 36%, making hypnosis the most effective method found in this review with the exception of a program which encouraged pulmonary and cardiac patients to quit smoking using advice from their doctor (such subjects are obviously atypical as they have life-threatening illnesses which are aggravated by smoking and therefore these people have very strong incentives to quit).

Table 1. Effectiveness of different types of intervention to achieve smoking cessation adapted from data in Chockalingam and Schmidt (1992)
Type of intervention% who quit smokingno. of subjectsno. of trials
Advice (cardiac patients)42455334
Advice (pulmonary patients)34166117
Smoke aversion312557103
Group withdrawal clinics301158046
5-day plans3097613
Other aversive techniques273926178
5 day plans26782825
Aversive methods in25104126
Educational (health promotion initiatives)24335227
Physician interventions (more than advice)18348616
Nicotine chewing gum16486640
Self-care (self-help)15358524
Physician advice7719017

Law and Tang (1995) looked at 10 randomized trials, carried out between 1975 and 1988, of hypnosis in smoking cessation. They found that the effect of hypnosis was highly statistically significant1. The research they examined involved 646 subjects, and cessation rates at 6 months post-treatment ranged from 10% to 38% (the average figure was 24%).

Table 2. Effectiveness of different types of intervention to achieve smoking cessation (adapted from data in Law and Tang 1995)
Type of intervention% who quit smokingno. of subjectsno. of trials
Supportive group session (heart attack survivors)362231
Supportive group session (healthy men in high risk for heart attack group)21132054
Nicotine patch (self-referral)13202010
Nicotine gum (self-referral11346013
Supportive group session (in pregnancy)8473810
Advice from GP (additional sessions)5646610
Gradual reduction in smoking56308
Nicotine gum (GP-initiated treatment)425974
Nicotine gum (GP initiated treatment)3714615
Advice from GP (one-off)21443817
Supportive group session220598
Advice from nurses in health promotion clinics133692

Table 2 (above) shows that the meta-analysis of Law and Tang confirms, to a large extent, the meta-analysis of Chockalingam and Schmidt (1992); in both cases, hypnosis appears as the most effective form of intervention to achieve smoking cessation with the exception of groups who are highly motivated to quit for medical reasons, such as those with existing heart or pulmonary problems.

A more recent study, by Ahijevych et al (2000), produces a similar overall figure for the success of hypnosis. This study looked at a randomly selected sample of 2,810 smokers who participated in single-session, group hypnotherapy smoking cessation programs sponsored by the American Lung Association of Ohio. A randomly selected sample of 452 participants completed telephone interviews 5 to 15 months after attending a treatment session. 22 percent of participants reported not smoking during the month prior to the interview.

Tailored Hypnosis—Taking It to the Next Level

The results discussed so far indicate that when the bulk of random trials are considered, hypnosis is shown to be the most effective intervention for achieving smoking cessation. Yet this is only half the story—many of the trials discussed so far have used very brief sessions, using standardized hypnosis techniques; many have, in fact, taken place in group sessions (making it difficult to tailor to each individual’s needs) and have not necessarily been carried out by expert practitioners of hypnosis. If, under these circumstances, hypnosis can achieve such positive outcomes in terms of enabling smokers to quit, then what might be achieved using programs of hypnosis which are carried out by expert hypnotists and are tailored to the needs of the individual who wants to stop smoking?

Nuland and Field (1970) found an improvement rate of 60% in treating smokers with hypnosis. The increased effectiveness was achieved by a more personalized approach, including feedback (under hypnosis) of the client’s own personal reasons for quitting. These researchers also employed a technique of having the client maintain contact by telephone between treatments and utilized self-hypnosis in addition.

Von Dedenroth (1968) devised an innovative unique approach which appears to have been extremely successful several weeks since cigarettes have become more and more unpleasant.

The study by Von Dedenroth has the highest quoted success rate for hypnosis in achieving smoking cessation which has been reported in the literature to date; Von Dedenroth found that his use of hypnosis enabled 94% of 1000 subjects to stop smoking (when checked at 18 months).

Practice Builders Study (2000) (Smoke Free International’s proprietary method)

This research was carried out on 300 subjects (beginning in January 2000 and continuing until March 2002) who responded to an advertisement. A ‘blind trial’ technique was used—subjects were not aware that they were taking part in a research project although they all ticked a box on their intake forms saying that they understood that the hypnotist’s methods were always being measured, tested, and improved, and that results would be collated and studied. Client confidentiality was assured so that their data could be used, but not their names, and these subjects were randomly allocated to receive either ‘standard’ hypnotherapy or a special formulation of hypnotherapy which Practice Builders has termed ‘advanced therapy’. 51% of respondents were male and 49% female; the median age of all subjects was 44 years.

No respondents had previous experience of hypnosis—51% of subjects had tried nicotine patches, 14% had tried nicotine gum, 7% had tried acupuncture, 6% had tried using a nicotine inhaler, and 30% had previously tried to quit using will-power alone. 11% of subjects had not previously tried to quit smoking.

For all subjects:

The client was interviewed to make sure that they wanted to stop smoking for their own reasons, and were not being pressured into it by someone else (doctor, loved one etc.).

The price was kept high (£250) to establish commitment, and to avoid people who were casually or speculatively trying hypnosis (as opposed to those who have some commitment, confidence or belief that hypnosis would help them to stop smoking).

All subjects waited a minimum of three weeks for an appointment in order to build expectancy—subjects were already thinking about, and planning being, a non-smoker for weeks before the treatment began.

Before the actual hypnosis, the client (or subject) is asked a series of questions about their smoking habit and their beliefs. This allows the hypnotherapist and the client to build rapport and also lets the hypnotherapist become aware of any thought patterns based on myths or misconceptions that need to be cleared up before the hypnosis. They are asked, for example:

  • ‘Do you believe you are addicted to nicotine?’ 
  • ‘What fears do you have about stopping?’ 
  • ‘What do you know about hypnosis?’ 

Hypnosis was then fully explained to the client, as well as how the conscious and the unconscious mind works, and any myths debunked (such as, you cannot make someone do something they don’t want to do, hypnosis is not sleep or unconsciousness, you will be aware of everything that is going on and will remember everything that happened in hypnosis after the session, you can stop the session at any time, etc.). This is called the “pre-talk”.

A hypnotic contract is then entered into, in which the client agrees to go along with all techniques and to accept all the suggestions that are for their benefit.

For subjects treated with the standard technique:

The client then reclines in the chair, and a basic stop smoking script is read. This type of standard technique doesn’t allow for much in the way of personalizing a session, as it is the same for every client. The wording of some of the best basic techniques uses hypnotic language patterns (Neuro Linguistic Programming). The client is then emerged.

For subjects treated with the advanced technique:

Hypnosis is induced using a progressive test induction tailored to the client. Ideo-motor techniques are used to gain unconscious communication. The client’s own motivations, Meta programs, and values are utilized in the session using a combination of metaphor and suggestion. NLP sub-modality and anchoring techniques are used according to the client’s processing style. At the end of the session, the client is emerged from hypnosis, and the change is tested, then future-paced and ratified.


Quit rates were established through telephone interviews 1 month and 6 months after the first session of treatment.

After 1 session, 95% of those who received ‘advanced therapy’ had quit smoking. The remaining 5% received a second session of treatment, leading to a further 1.3% of the group quitting smoking. In total, therefore, at 6 months, 97% of those who received ‘advanced therapy’ had quit smoking. 

Of those who received ‘standard therapy,’ 51% quit smoking after one session, and a further 6% quit after a second session—a total of 57% had quit smoking at 6 months.

Those who were still smoking at 6 months did not differ from those who had successfully quit in terms of gender, age, or therapies previously tried. These results mean that for both standard treatments and the ‘advanced treatment,’ quit rates are extraordinarily high and well above what has hitherto been reported in the literature. Results for both treatments were significant at the 0.001 level (chi-square).

Outcomes for the ‘advanced therapy’ are considerably higher than any findings previously reported in the literature. In addition, the success rate achieved using the standard technique was considerably higher than expected, and this may be due to the fact that the elements that the standard treatment and ‘advanced treatment’ have in common (price, waiting period for the session, advertising exposure, and pre-talk, etc.) have powerful effects on outcomes.


  1. Public health focus: effectiveness of smoking-control strategies-United States (1992). MMWR Morb.Mortal.Wklv.Rep. 41. 645-7, 653. 
  2. Abbot, N. C, Stead, L. F., White, A. R., Barnes, J., & Ernst, E. (2000). Hypnotherapy for Smoking Cessation. Cochrane. Data base. Syst. Rev. CD001008. 
  3. Agee, L. L. (1983). Treatment procedures using hypnosis in smoking cessation programs: a review of the literature. J.Am.Soc.Psychosom.Dent.Med., 30, 111-126. 
  4. Ahijevych, K., Yerardi, R., & Nedilsky, N. (2000). Descriptive outcomes of the American Lung Association of Ohio hypnotherapy smoking cessation program. Int.J.CIin.Exp.HvDn.. 48. 374-387. 
  5. Baer, L., Carey, R. J., Jr., & Meminger, S. R. (1986). Hypnosis for smoking cessation: a clinical follow-up. Int.J.Psychosom., 33, 13-16. 
  6. Barber, J. (2001). Freedom from smoking: integrating hypnotic methods and rapid smoking to facilitate smoking cessation. Int.J.CIin.Exp.Hypn., 49, 257-266. 
  7. Bayot, A., Capafons, A., & Cardena, E. (1997). Emotional self-regulation therapy: a new and efficacious treatment for smoking. Am.J.CIin.Hypn., 40, 146-156. 
  8. Bello, S. (1991). [Treatment of smoking]. Rev.Med.Chil.. 119, 701-708. 
  9. Bjornson, W., Rand, C., Connett, J. E., Lindgren, P., Nides, M., Pope, F., Buist, A. S., Hoppe-Ryan, C., & O’Hara, P. (1995). Gender differences in smoking cessation after 3 years in the Lung Health Study. Am.J.Public Health, 85, 223-230. 
  10. Brian, R. K. (1992). Hypnosis. J.R.Soc.Health. 112. 312. 
  11. Byrne, D. G. & Whyte, H. M. (1987). The efficacy of community-based smoking cessation strategies: a long-term follow-up study. IntJ.Addict., 22, 791-801. 
  12. Capafons, A. & Amigo, S. (1995). Emotional self-regulation therapy for smoking reduction: description and initial empirical data. Int.J.CIin.Exp.Hypn., 43, 7-19. 
  13. Cepeda-Benito, A. (1993). Meta-analytical review of the efficacy of Nicotine Chewing Gum in Smoking Treatment Programs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 61. 822-830. 
  14. Covino, N. A. & Bottari, M. (2001). Hypnosis, behavioral theory, and smoking cessation. J.Dent.Educ.. 65. 340-347. 
  15. Crasilneck, H. B. & Hall, J. A. (1968). The use of hypnosis in controlling cigarette smoking. South.Med.J.. 61. 999-1002. 
  16. Crasilneck, H. B. (1990). Hypnotic techniques for smoking control and psychogenic impotence. AmJ.CIin.Hvpn., 32. 147-153. 
  17. Curry, S. J. (1993). Self-Help Interventions for Smoking Cessation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 61. 790-803. 
  18. Department of Public Health & Policy (UK) (1992). Smoking Cessation Interventions. (PHP Departmental Publication ed.) (Vols. 6; 1992). 
  19. Dick, B. O. (1993). Hypnotism curse or cure-October 1992. J.R.Soc.Health. 113, 50. 
  20. Durcan, M. J., White, J., Jorenby, D. E., Fiore, M. C., Rennard, S. I., Leischow, S. 1, Nides, M. A., Ascher, J. A., & Johnston, J. A. (2002). Impact of prior nicotine replacement therapy on smoking cessation efficacy. Am J. Health Behav., 26. 213-220. 
  21. Frank, R. G., Umlauf, R. L, Wonderlich, S. A., & Ashkanazi, G. S. (1986). Hypnosis and behavioral treatment in a worksite smoking cessation program. Addict.Behav., 11, 59-62. 
  22. Frederick, C. & McNeal, S. (1993). From strength to strength: “inner strength” with immature ego states. AmJ.CIin.Hypn., 35, 250-256. 
  23. Gonzales, D. H., Nides, M. A., Ferry, L. H., Kustra, R. P., Jamerson, B. D., Segall, N., Herrero, L. A., Krishen, A., Sweeney, A., Buaron, K., & Metz, A. (2001). Bupropion SR as an aid to smoking cessation in smokers treated previously with bupropion: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Clin.Pharmacol.Ther.. 69, 438-444. 
  24. German, A. (1992). Another perspective on hypnotism. J.R.Soc.Health, 112, 312. 
  25. Gravitz, M. A. (1988). Early uses of hypnosis in smoking cessation and dietary management: a historical note. AmJ.CIin.Hypn., 31, 68-69. 
  26. Green, J. P. & Lynn, S. J. (2000). Hypnosis and suggestion-based approaches to smoking cessation: an examination of the evidence. Int.J.CIin.Exp.Hypn., 48, 195-224. 
  27. Hall, J. A. & Crasilneck, H. B. (1970). Development of a hypnotic technique for treating chronic cigarette smoking. Int.J.CIin.Exp.Hypn., 18, 283-289. 
  28. Hall, J. A. & Crasilneck, H. B. (1978). Hypnosis. JAMA. 239, 760-761. 
  29. Haustein, K. O. (2000). Pharmacotherapy of nicotine dependence. Int.J.CIin.Pharmacol.Ther.. 38, 273-290. 
  30. Haxby, D. G. (1995). Treatment of nicotine dependence. AmJ.Health Syst.Pharm., 52* 265-281. 
  31. Hays, J. T., Croghan, I. T., Schroeder, D. R., Offord, K. P., Hurt, R. D., Wolter, T. D., Nides, M. A., & Davidson, M. (1999). Over-the-counter nicotine patch therapy for smoking cessation: results from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and open label trials. Am.J.Public Health, 89, 1701-1707. 
  32. Hays, J. T., Croghan, I. T., Schroeder, D. R., Offord, K. P., Hurt, R. D., Wolter, T. D., Nides, M. A., & Davidson, M. (1999). Over-the-counter nicotine patch therapy for smoking cessation: results from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and open label trials. AmJ.Public Health, 89, 1701-1707. 
  33. Hempstead, J. S. (2001). Clinical hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. Prof.Nurse, 17*265. 
  34. Holroyd, J. (1991). The uncertain relationship between hypnotizability and smoking treatment outcome. Int.J.CIin.Exp.Hvpn., 39, 93-102. 
  35. Horwitz, M. B., Hindi-Alexander, M., & Wagner, T. J. (1985). Psychosocial mediators of abstinence, relapse, and continued smoking: a one-year follow-up of a minimal intervention. Addict.Behav., 10, 29-39. 
  36. Hughes, J. A., Sanders, L. D., Dunne, J. A., Tarpey, J., & Vickers, M. D. (1994). Reducing smoking. The effect of suggestion during general anesthesia on postoperative smoking habits. Anaesthesia, 49, 126-128. 
  37. Hyman, G. J., Stanley, R. O., Burrows, G. D., & Home, D. J. (1986). Treatment effectiveness of hypnosis and behavior therapy in smoking cessation: a methodological refinement. Addict.Behav., 11, 355-365. 
  38. Jamerson, B. D., Nides, M., Jorenby, D. E., Donahue, R., Garrett, P., Johnston, J. A., Fiore, M. C, Rennard, S. I., & Leischow, S. J. (2001). Late-term smoking cessation despite initial failure: an evaluation of bupropion sustained release, nicotine patch, combination therapy, and placebo. Clin.Ther., 23, 744-752. 
  39. Janik, A. J. (1993). Hypnotism curse or cure-October 1992. J.R.Soc.Health, 113, 50. 
  40. Jeffrey, L. K. & Jeffrey, T. B. (1988). Exclusion therapy in smoking cessation: a brief communication. Int.J.CIin.Exp.Hypn., 36, 70-74. 
  41. Jeffrey, T. B., Jeffrey, L. K., Greuling, J. W., & Gentry, W. R. (1985). Evaluation of a brief group treatment package including hypnotic induction for maintenance of smoking cessation: a brief communication. Int.J.CIin.Exp.Hvpn., 33. 95-98. 
  42. Johnson, D. L. & Karkut, R. T. (1994). Performance by gender in a stop-smoking program combining hypnosis and aversion. Psychol.Rep., 75, 851-857. 
  43. Jorenby, D. E., Leischow, S. J., Nides, M. A., Rennard, S. L, Johnston, J. A., Hughes, A. R., Smith, S. S., Muramoto, M. L., Daughton, D. M., Doan, K., Fiore, M. C, & Baker, T. B. (1999). A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation. N.Engl.J.Med., 340. 685-691. 
  44. Kaufert, J. M., Rabkin, S. W., Syrotuik, J., Boyko, E., & Shane, F. (1986). Health beliefs as predictors of success of alternate modalities of smoking cessation: results of a controlled trial. J.Behav.Med., 9, 475-489. 
  45. Kinnunen, T. (2001). Integrating hypnosis into a comprehensive smoking cessation intervention: comments on past and present studies. Int.J.CIin.Exp.Hypn., 49^ 267-271. 
  46. Kline, M. V. & Under, M. (1969). Psychodynamic factors in the experimental investigation of hypnotically induced emotions with particular reference to blood glucose measurements. J.Psychol., 71, 21-25. 
  47. Kline, M. V. (1970). The use of extended group hypnotherapy sessions in controlling cigarette habituation. Int.J.CIin.Exp.Hypn., 18, 270-282. 
  48. Kline, M. V. (1971). Research in hypnotherapy: studies in behavior organization. Bibl.Psychiatr.. 147. 67-87. 
  49. Kline, M. V. (1972). The production of antisocial behavior through hypnosis: new clinical data. IntJ.CIin.Exp.Hypn., 20. 80-94. 
  50. Kline, M. V. (1979). Hypnosis with specific relation to biofeedback and behavior therapy. Theoretical and clinical considerations. Psychother.Psychosom., 31, 294-300. 
  51. Lambe, R., Osier, C., & Franks, P. (1986). A randomized controlled trial of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. J.Fam.Pract., 22, 61-65. 
  52. Lando, H. A. (1996). Smoking cessation products and programs. Alaska Med., 38, 65-68. 
  53. Law, M. & Tang, J. L. (1995). An analysis of the effectiveness of interventions intended to help people stop smoking. Arch.Intern.Med., 155, 1933-1941. 
  54. Lynn, S. J., Kirsch, L, Barabasz, A., Cardena, E., & Patterson, D. (2000). Hypnosis as an empirically supported clinical intervention: the state of the evidence and a look to the future. Int.J.CIin.Exp.Hvpn.. 48. 239-259. 
  55. Lynn, S. J. & Shindler, K. (2002). The role of hypnotizability assessment in treatment. Am.J.CIin.Hvpn.. 44. 185-197. 
  56. Molimard, M. & Hirsch, A. (1990). [Methods of stopping smoking]. Rev.Mal Respir., 7, 307-312. 
  57. Murray, R. P., Bailey, W. C., Daniels, K., Bjornson, W. M., Kurnow, K., Connett, J. E., Nides, M. A., & Kiley, J. P. (1996). Safety of nicotine polacrilex gum used by 3,094 participants in the Lung Health Study. Lung Health Study Research Group. Chest. 109. 438-445. 
  58. Murray, R. P., Nides, M. A., Istvan, J. A., & Daniels, K. (1998). Levels of cotinine associated with long-term ad-libitum nicotine polacrilex use in a clinical trial. Addict.Behav., 23. 529-535. 
  59. Murray, R. P., Anthonisen, N. R., Connett, J. E., Wise, R. A., Lindgren, P. G., Greene, P. G., & Nides, M. A. (1998). Effects of multiple attempts to quit smoking and relapses to smoking on pulmonary function. Lung Health Study Research Group. J.CIin.EpidemioL 51. 1317-1326. 
  60. Myles, P. S. (1992). Cessation of smoking following tape suggestion under anesthesia. Anaesth.Intensive Care, 20, 540-541. 
  61. Myles, P. S., Hendrata, M., Layher, Y., Williams, N. J., Hall, J. L, Moloney, J. T., & Powell, J. (1996). Double-blind, randomized trial of cessation of smoking after audiotape suggestion during anesthesia. Br.J.Anaesth., 76, 694-698. 
  62. Neufeld, V. & Lynn, S. J. (1988). A single-session group self-hypnosis smoking cessation treatment: a brief communication. Int.J.CIin.Exp.Hypn., 36, 75-79. 
  63. Nides, M., Rand, C., Doice, J., Murray, R., O’Hara, P., Voelker, H., & Connett, J. (1994). Weight gain as a function of smoking cessation and 2-mg nicotine gum use among middle-aged smokers with mild lung impairment in the first 2 years of the Lung Health Study. Health Psvchol.. 13. 354-361. 
  64. Nides, M. A., Tashkin, D. P., Simmons, M. S., Wise, R. A., Li, V. C., & Rand, C. S. (1993). Improving inhaler adherence in a clinical trial through the use of the nebulizer chronolog. Chest. 104. 501-507. 
  65. Nides, M. A., Rakos, R. F., Gonzales, D., Murray, R. P., Tashkin, D. P., Bjornson-Benson, W. M., Lindgren, P., & Connett, J. E. (1995). Predictors of initial smoking cessation and relapse through the first 2 years of the Lung Health Study. J.Consult Clin.Psvchol.. 63. 60-69. 
  66. Nuland, W and Field P.B.(1970). Smoking and Hypnosis. IntJ.CIin.Exp.Hypn 18. 290-306 
  67. Page, R. A. (1999). Identifying hypnotic sequelae: the problem of attribution. Am.J.CIin.Hvpn.. 41. 316-318. 
  68. Parameswaran, P. G. (2001). Try hypnotherapy and acupuncture. Tex.Med., 97, 9-10. 
  69. Rabkin, S. W., Boyko, E., Shane, F., & Kaufert, J. (1984). A randomized trial comparing smoking cessation programs utilizing behaviour modification, health education or hypnosis. Addict.Behav., 9. 157-173. 
  70. Schoenberger, N. E. (2000). Research on hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy. IntJ.CIin.Exp.Hypn., 48, 154-169. 
  71. Schwartz, J. L. (1979). Review and evaluation of methods of smoking cessation, 1969-77. Summary of a monograph. Public Health Rep.. 94. 558-563. 
  72. Schwartz, J. L. (1991). Methods for smoking cessation. Clin.Chest Ned.. 12. 737-753. 
  73. Shewchuk, L. A. (1976). Smoking cessation programs of the American Health Foundation. Prev.Med., 5. 454-474. 
  74. Shewchuk, L. A., Dubren, R., Burton, D., Forman, M., Clark, R. R., & Jaffin, A. R. (1977). Preliminary observations on an intervention program for heavy smokers. Int.J.Addict.. 12. 323-336. 
  75. Shiffman, S. 1. (1993). Smoking Cessation Treatment: Any Progress? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 61, 718-722. 
  76. Simon, E. P. & James, L. C. (1999). Clinical applications of hypnotherapy in a medical setting. Hawaii Med.J.. 58. 344-347. 
  77. Sorensen, G., Beder, B., Prible, C. R., & Pinney, J. (1995). Reducing smoking at the workplace: implementing a smoking ban and hypnotherapy. J.Occup.Environ.Med., 37, 453-460. 
  78. Spiegel, D., Frischholz, E. J., Fleiss, J. L., & Spiegel, H. (1993). Predictors of smoking abstinence following a single-session restructuring intervention with self-hypnosis. Am.J.Psychiatry. 150, 1090-1097. 
  79. Stanton, H. E. (1991). Smoking cessation in a single session: an update. Int.J.Psychosom.. 38, 84-88. 
  80. Sykes, V. C. (1992). Hypnosis. J.R.Soc.Health. 112. 312. 
  81. Tashkin, D., Kanner, R., Bailey, W., Buist, S., Anderson, P., Nides, M., Gonzales, D., Dozier, G., Patel, M. K., & Jamerson, B. (2001). Smoking cessation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial. Lancet, 357, 1571-1575. 
  82. Tonnesen, P. & Wennike, P. 1 (1999). [Hypnosis for smoking cessation]. Uaeskr.Laeqer. 161. 4270-4272. 
  83. Tori, C. D. (1978). A smoking satiation procedure with reduced medical risk. J.CIin.Psvchol.. 34. 574-577. 
  84. Valbo, A. & Eide, T. (1996). Smoking cessation in pregnancy: the effect of hypnosis in a randomized study. Addict.Behav., 21, 29-35. 
  85. Viswesvaran, C. 1. & Schmidt, F. L. (1992). A Meta-Analytic Comparison of the Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Methods. Journal of Applied Psvcholoqy.77(4): 554-561. August 1992. 
  86. Von Dedenroth, T. E. (1968). The use of hypnosis in 1000 cases of “tobaccomaniacs”. Am.J.CIin.Hypn.. 10. 194-197. 
  87. Wagner, T. J., Hindi-Alexander, M., & Horwitz, M. B. (1983). A one-year follow-up study of the Damon Group Hypnosis Smoking Cessation Program. J.Okla.State Med.Assoc.. 76, 414-417. 
  88. Wick, E., Sigman, R., & Kline, M. V. (1971). Hypnotherapy and therapeutic education in the treatment of obesity: differential treatment factors. Psvchiatr.Q.. 45. 234-254. 
  89. Williams, J. M. & Hall, D. W. (1988). Use of single session hypnosis for smoking cessation. Addict.Behav.. 13. 205-208. 
  90. Wong, M. & Burrows, G. (1995). Clinical hypnosis. Aust.Fam.Physician, 24, 778-81, 783. 
  91. Rigotti, N. (1997). Efficacy of a Smoking Cessation Program for Hospital. Arch.Intern.Med.. 157, 2653-2660. 
  92. Combined results were statistically significant at the .001 level, meaning that there is less than a one in a thousand chance that these results happened by chance. 

© 2005 Smoke Free International